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Guru Arjan Dev, A Great Sikh Martyr
|by V. Sundaram|
Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606)
The personal relations between the Mughal Emperor Akbar (1542-1605 AD) and Guru Arjan Dev were quite cordial. But things changed for the worse after the accession of Jahangir (1605-1627 AD) as Mughal Emperor in 1605. It was Jahangir who inaugurated the era of inhuman and brutal suppression of Sikhism and extermination of the Sikhs and Hindus.
The most important work of Guru Arjan Dev was the compilation of Adi Granth. The Adi Granth is regarded as the greatest work of sacred Punjabi literature. He brought together the writings of the first four Gurus and those of the Hindu Saints from different parts of India.
Adi Granth was composed by Guru Arjan Dev in the form of sacred, soulful verses in 1604. It is, perhaps, the only book of a scriptural nature which still exists in the form first published (a hand-written manuscript) by Guru Arjan Dev. He said that the Book is the abode of God: ‘Pothi Parameswar ka sthan’. His hymns were set to divine music. We find in Adi Granth a wide range of mystical emotion, intimate expressions of the personal realization of the rapturous hymns of divine love. Guru Arjan Dev’s successors made a few additions and the tenth Guru, Gobind Singh, said that there would be no more Gurus and the Granth should be regarded as the living voice of all the prophets: Guru-Vani Sukhmani, one the most popular banis (sacred hymns) revered by all the Sikhs, was composed by Guru Arjan Dev.
In order to promote the feelings of universal brotherhood among the Sikhs and others, Guru Arjan Dev organized the Masand system, a group of representatives who taught and propagated the teachings of the Sikh Gurus and also collected the Dasvand, one-tenth of a Sikh’s income (in money, goods or service) that Sikhs paid to support the building of Gurdwaras, the all important Guru Ka Langars (free communal kitchens) which were designed and intended to share with all a sense of love, respect and equality—still the most important and vital element in any Gurdwara even today.
All the known and accepted historic facts about the glorious martyrdom of the 5th Guru Arjan Dev during Jahangir’s rule in 1606 and the equally glorious martyrdom of the 9th Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-1675) during Aurangazeb’s rule in 1675 have been deliberately suppressed in NCERT ‘Medieval India’ Text Book for Class 11 written by Professor Satish Chandra. He has acted as the full time political agent of the fundamentally anti-Sikh Sonia Congress party. All the basic facts relating to the disgraceful and barbarous drama of petty pseudo-secular Congress politics allied with deadly and poisonous anti-national ideology of Marxist Indian historians, enacted by the UPA HRD Minister Arjun Singh with dictatorial authority after 2004—— which provided a safe haven to men like Professor Satish Chandra— in the vital matter of deliberate manipulation and distortion of NCERT Text Books have been graphically brought out by Professor Makhan Lal and Professor Rajendra Dixit in their brilliant Book titled ‘Educating to Confuse and Disrupt, Defiling History and Education System of India’ published by India First Foundation in New Delhi.
Professor Makhan Lal and Professor Rajendra Dikshit have revealed these shocking facts in the above book: ‘Professor Satish Chandra took great pains with white washing Aurangazeb’s tyranny and persecution of non-Muslims in general and of Hindus and Sikhs in particular. The facts about Guru Tegh Bahadur’s valiant struggle against the Mughals have been suppressed. The Guru suffered horrible torture and eventual execution for leading a glorious and pious struggle for justice and religious freedom against the Mughals. But Satish Chandra decided, compelled by his ideological leanings and not as per the evidence and facts, to portray Guru Tegh Bahadur in bad light and Aurangazeb as a real hero—a tolerant, pious and, indeed, very secular ruler…..Satish Chandra not only slighted the supreme sacrifice made by Guru Tegh Bahadur, but also did not mention the 5th Guru Arjan Dev, who was put to death by Jahangir in the most cruel manner’. Trecherous Sonia Gandhi and her anti-natiojal Congress party are persecuting and prosecuting women hindu saints like Sadhvi Pragya and Hindu Swamijis like Assemananda in the same cruel and brutal manner as Mughal Emperor Jehangir tortured Guru Arjan Dev at Lahore in 1606 and Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb tortured uru Tej Bahadur in Delhi in 1675.
Qualities preached and promoted by Sri Guru Granth Sahib
All people of the world are equal
The Guru Granth Sahib promotes the message of equality of all beings and at the same time state that Sikh believers "obtain the supreme status" (SSGS, Page 446). Discrimination of all types is strictly forbidden based on the Sikh tenet Fatherhood of God which states that no one should be reckoned low or high, stating that instead believers should –“reckon the entire mankind as One” (Akal Ustat, 15.85).
Sri Guru Granth Sahib promotes the concept of equality by highlighting the fact that we are made of the same flesh, blood and bone and we have the same light of God with us – Soul . Our building bricks are the same:
The Gurus also encourage believers to promote social equality by sharing earnings with those in need.
Sikhism also preaches that equal respect should be given to women.
Guru Nank Dev Ji said "Sikhi does not teach you to raise your hand on a woman it teaches you to respect them"
One God for All
Sikhism is strictly monotheistic in its belief. This means that God is believed to be the one and sole Reality in the cosmos, meaning that no other being have extra-human power. Sikh Gurus state that God alone is worthy of worship, and the highest end of existence, that is mukti or liberation can come through Devotion to God alone.
Besides its monotheism, Sikhism also emphasizes another philosophical idea, which is known as monism. Monism is the belief the world is only a "vision" or illusion (Maya) and that God is the sole "Continuing Reality" so that selfishness, egoism and hate are meaningless.
Speak and Live Truthfully
Sikhs believe in the importance of truthful living, which can only be created by purity of mind and not through religious purification rites. They believe that impurity of mind leads to many other vices such as anger, lust, attachment, ego, and greed.
Control the Five Vices
Devotees of Guru Sahib believe they must control the animal instincts of Pride/Ego, Anger/Temper, Greed/Urges, Attachment/Dependency and Lust/Addiction.
Live in God's Hukam
A Sikh believes they should live and accept the command of God easily and without too much emotional distress. They attempt to live in contentment and in Chardikala (positive attitude).
The Sikh religion emphasizes several other virtues: Truth (Sat), contentment (santokh), Love (Ishq), Compassion/Mercy (daya), Service (seva), Charity (dana), forgiveness (khsama), humility (namrata), patience (dheerjh), non-attachment (vairagya) and renunciation (tyaga).
These believers attempt to avoid anger (krodh), egoism (ahankara), avarice (lobh), lust (kama), infatuation (moha), sinful acts (papa), pride (maan), doubt (duvidha), ownership (mamata), hatred (vair), and hostility (virodh). In the Sikh religion, freedom from these vices, or Sahaj, is attained through tension-free, ethical living, grounded in spirituality avoiding self-mortification and other religious rites of cleansing.
Michael MacAuliffe, also known as Max Arthur Macauliffe (10 September 1841 - 15 March 1913), was a senior British administrator, prolific scholar and author. Macauliffe is renowned for his translation of Sikh scriptures and traditional works in Gurmukhi on Sikh history into English. MacAuliffe entered the Indian Civil Service in 1862, and arrived in the Punjab in February 1864. He was appointed Deputy Commissioner of the Punjab in 1882, and a Divisional Judge in 1884. He retired from the Indian Civil Service in 1893.
MacAuliffe also wrote a rendition, English translation of the Sacred scriptures of the Sikh religion, the Guru Granth Sahib. He also wrote The Sikh Religion: its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors (six volumes, Oxford University Press, 1909). He was assisted in his works by Pratap Singh Giani, a Sikh scholar.
Macauliffe converted to Sikhism in the 1860s and was derided by the British Government for having "turned a Sikh". His personal assistant remarked in his memoirs that on his death bed, Macauliffe could be heard reciting the Sikh morning prayer, Japji, ten minutes before he died.
Macauliffe is held in high esteem amongst Sikh communion, for his pioneering work of translation of the Sikh Scripture the Guru Granth Sahib into English. At a lecture at the Annual Session of the Lahore Singh Sabha in 1909, Macauliffe proclaimed that the Guru Granth was matchless and unsurpassed as a Book of Holy Teachings.
Max Arthur Macauliffe wrote thus about the authenticity of the Sikh Scriptures:
Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), a Nobel laureate, gave the following comment on receiving the First English translation of the Guru Granth Sahib:
All patriotic Indians—and more particularly the Sikhs, the Hindus, the Jains and, the other non-Muslims and non-Christians—besieged by the lethal forces of Global Christianity, Global Islam, Malignant Marxism and Sonia Congress brand of pseudo-secularism today—should clearly understand that the study of Sikh history is not a luxury. It is a patriotic necessity for all the citizens of India. According to Arthur Marwick, individuals, communities, societies could scarcely exist if all knowledge of the past is wiped out from collective memory. As memory is to the individual, so history is to the community or the society. Without memory, individuals will have great difficulty in relating to others, in finding their bearings, in taking intelligent decisions—they will lose their sense of identity. A society without knowledge of its past would be like an individual without memory. Without knowledge of the past, all of us as individuals or communities would find ourselves impotently adrift and rudderless on the endless and featureless ocean of time.
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